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EPOA


Who can make an EPOA?
Any adult (someone 19 or older in BC) can make an EPOA unless incapable of understanding the nature and consequences of the document. The Power of Attorney Act says an adult is incapable of understanding the nature and consequences of the document, if the adult cannot understand all of the following: (a) the property the adult has and its approximate value; (b) the obligations the adult owes to his or her dependents; (c) that the adult’s attorney will be able to do on the adult’s behalf anything in respect of the adult’s financial affairs that the adult could do if capable, except make a will, subject to the conditions and restrictions set out in the enduring power of attorney; (d) that, unless the attorney manages the adult’s business and property prudently, their value may decline; (e) that the attorney might misuse the attorney’s authority; and (f) that the adult may, if capable, revoke the enduring power of attorney.
What does an EPOA cover?
An EPOA can only deal with your legal and financial affairs. Financial affairs can include paying your bills, doing your banking, managing your investments, selling your assets and paying your taxes. Financial affairs may also include looking after financial responsibilities to your dependents. Legal affairs can include hiring a lawyer to start or defend a legal action. You can make an EPOA that is specific, or it can be broad. Many EPOAs are broad so that the attorney has the authority to deal with anything that may need attention. A power of attorney does not cover decisions about your personal and health care. A representation agreement must be used if you want to choose someone to make your personal and health care decisions.
When does an EPOA start?
An EPOA can be effective as soon as it is signed by you and your attorney unless you specify when it is it to take effect (see below). If you do not indicate when it is to take effect, you may want to discuss when and how your attorney should start to assist you.
Can the date the EPOA starts be changed?
You can decide when your attorney has authority to act if you clearly outline this in your EPOA. For example, you might want it to be effective if your family doctor signs a letter saying you are incapable. While this ensures the attorney cannot act unless you are incapable, it also means they have no authority to speak for you or assist you while you are capable. Assistance could include helping deal with complex financial matters, dealing with investment advisors, or talking to the Canada Revenue Agency about your tax return.
Can you still make decisions?
Under the law, you are presumed to be capable. You can continue to make decisions until you are incapable of making those decisions.
When does an EPOA end?

The EPOA will continue until you revoke it or die. Certain events will also cause your EPOA to end. Some of the more common ones are:

  • your attorney and any alternates are no longer available or qualified to act
  • your marriage or marriage like relationship ends and your attorney is your spouse unless your EPOA says it continues
  • a condition you put in your EPOA occurs
  • a Court order ends it Your EPOA made after September 1, 2011 is suspended, and your attorney cannot act if, the PGT is appointed Committee of Estate under a Certificate of Incapability pursuant to the Patients Property Act.
Can an EPOA be changed or revoked?
You can change or revoke your EPOA if you are capable. It is your responsibility to ensure that the attorney and third parties such as your bank are properly notified of the change or revocation. Caution: Making a new EPOA does not automatically revoke a previous POA or EPOA. You need to follow the revocation rules.
How is an EPOA made?

An EPOA must be in writing and there are legal requirements to ensure it is properly signed. Legal advice from your lawyer or notary, or a community legal clinic is recommended. The Ministry of Attorney General has published a form that may be used to make an EPOA. It may or may not cover your circumstances or needs. It alerts you to some of the rules that must be followed for an EPOA to be valid. You can find the link at the end of this guide. Some of the rules to be aware of include:

  • both you and your attorney must sign in front of witnesses
  • if you cannot sign, you may instruct someone to sign on your behalf
  • two witnesses are required unless the witness is a lawyer or notary in BC
  • your attorney cannot be a witness and a witness cannot be the attorney’s spouse, child or parent
  • if your EPOA covers real estate (e.g., a house or an apartment), a lawyer or notary must be the witness

Choosing an attorney for an EPOA


Choosing an attorney can be a difficult decision. You do not need to make an EPOA if it is not right for you. Here are some considerations:
Who can be an attorney?

You can name anyone you trust to be your attorney. You may choose your spouse, a family member or a close friend. If the person is not an adult, that person cannot act until he or she turns 19. It is important to know that you cannot name someone who is paid to provide personal care or health care services to you. This includes employees working at a facility where you live that provides these services. There is an exception if the attorney you choose is your spouse, child or parent. You may also name a trust company, or a credit union authorized to provide these services. In determining who would be a good attorney for you, consider their ability to be available as well as their knowledge and skills. Caution: Talk to the attorney before proceeding. The attorney you name is not obliged to accept the role. There may be requirements that need to be included in your EPOA. For example, a trust company or credit union will need to ensure the EPOA provides for compensation.

Duties and responsibilities

Being an attorney carries many responsibilities. Not only are there duties to you, but there are expectations and legal requirements. Your attorney will be expected to comply with these rules. That means they need to agree to take on the responsibility, and that they have the skills, abilities and time to do what is expected. This becomes especially important if you are no longer capable and cannot oversee what your attorney is doing.

Duties of an attorney include:

  • acting honestly and in good faith
  • exercising the care, skill and diligence of a reasonably prudent person
  • only making decisions the attorney is authorized to make
  • investing assets according to rules in the Trustee Act
  • keeping your assets separate from the attorney’s assets
  • keeping records of your assets and their value, as well as transactions so that an accounting can be created.

Other rules for an attorney include:

  • your attorney cannot make or change a will
  • there are restrictions on making or changing beneficiary designations
  • your attorney can hire agents but cannot delegate decision making to others except to qualified investment specialists

Caution: if you appoint two or more attorneys and one is no longer able to act for any reason, the other attorney can continue to act. This may or may not be what you want. If you want more than one attorney at all times, your EPOA must address this.

Things to discuss with your attorney

Even if you trust someone to comply with the duties and responsibilities, it is always a good idea to discuss your plans with the attorney. If they agree to take on the role should it become necessary, you may want to discuss what is important to you so they know your values and wishes that should guide their decision making if they cannot discuss them with you. You may also want to explain some of the important aspects of your financial affairs and where to locate the information.

How many attorneys?
You may appoint more than one attorney. They must act together unless your EPOA says otherwise or they have different areas of authority. Each situation is different. It is your choice to decide what arrangement is practical to carry out your wishes while minimizing the risks to you.
Can I name an alternate Attorney?
There is always a possibility that an attorney may no longer be able or qualified to act or may want to resign. If there is someone else you trust to take over, you may want to name this person as an alternate so that your EPOA can continue. Your EPOA must describe the circumstances when your alternate can start to act.

Other Considerations for an EPOA


There are a number of things to consider when making an EPOA. Two matters that may require special attention are gifts, loans and donations, and paying your attorney. If any of these situations apply to you, you may wish to seek legal advice to ensure your wishes can be carried out.
Can the attorney make gifts, loans or donations?
Although the attorney’s primary responsibility is to you, you may have family or dependents you want to help, gifts you like to make each year or a favourite charity you want to support for as long as your finances can manage it. The law permits some gifts, loans and donations, but they are subject to strict limits. If you want your attorney to be able to continue to make gifts and donations, or to make loans to certain family members, you may want to consider whether or not specific guidelines should be included in your EPOA. Your attorney may also want to have a better understanding of what your wishes are and how to carry out the powers you put in the EPOA. Caution: If you have an EPOA that was made before September 1, 2011, or was made in another jurisdiction but is recognized in BC, the legal limits will apply unless your EPOA includes guidelines.
Will the attorney be paid?
While many attorneys will not want to be paid, if you want to pay your attorney, it must be stated in the EPOA. However, all attorneys are entitled to be reimbursed from your assets for their validated and reasonable expenses.

Representation Agreement (RA) – General Information


Who can make an RA?
Any adult (someone 19 or older in BC) can make an RA unless incapable of making the agreement. See the specific types of RAs for more information.
When does an RA start?
An RA can be effective as soon as it is signed by you and your representative unless you specify when it is to take effect (see below). If you do not indicate when it is to take effect, you may want to discuss when and how your representative should start to assist you.
Can the date the RA starts be changed?
You can say when the RA will take effect as long as the RA says what the circumstances are and who will confirm that the event occurred. For example, the RA might state that it is effective when your family doctor signs a letter saying you are incapable.
Can you still make decisions?
Under the law, you are presumed to be capable. You can continue to make decisions until you are incapable of making those decisions
When does an RA end?

The RA will continue until you revoke it or die. Other events that might end it include:

  • your representative and any alternates are no longer available or qualified to act
  • your marriage or marriage like relationship ends and your representative is your spouse unless your RA says it continues
  • a condition you put in your RA occurs
  • a Court order ends it.

Your RA may be suspended and your representative cannot act if:

  • a monitor is required and the monitor is no longer able or willing to act. If your RA does not provide for an alternate monitor the PGT may be able to appoint one so the representative can continue to act.
  • the RA is with respect to managing your routine financial affairs and
  • the PGT is appointed committee of your estate under a Certificate of Incapability. Caution: Making a new RA does not automatically revoke a previous RA. If you intend to revoke an existing RA, you need to follow the revocation rules.
Can an RA be changed or revoked?

You can change or revoke your RA if you are capable. It is your responsibility to ensure that the representative and third parties such as your bank are properly notified of the change or revocation.

How is an RA made?
An RA must be in writing and there are legal requirements to ensure it is properly signed and witnessed. Legal advice from your lawyer or notary, or a community legal clinic is recommended.
Can more than one RA be made with different representatives?

Yes, you may want to make more than one RA if you want to keep your instructions and wishes for financial and personal matters separate. Or, you may want to give different people authority to make different decisions. For example, you may want to give authority over your routine financial affairs to someone who is good with financial matters but give someone else authority to make your personal and health care decisions because they are in close contact with you and know your values and wishes.

Caution: Making a new RA for the same area of decision making does not automatically revoke a previous RA. You need to follow the revocation rules.

What is a monitor?

A monitor is someone who can be appointed in the RA and who has that the power to review the representative to see if the representative is complying with his or her duties. If the monitor has reason to believe that the representative is not complying with the duties and it cannot be resolved, the monitor is expected to inform the PGT.

Choosing a representative


Choosing a representative can be a difficult decision. You do not need to make an RA if it is not right for you. Here are some considerations:
Who can be a representative?

You can name any adult (someone 19 or older in BC) you trust to be your representative. You may choose your spouse, a family member or a close friend. It is important to know that you cannot name someone who is paid to provide personal care or health care services to you. This includes employees working at a facility in which you live and which provides personal and healthcare services. There is an exception if the representative is your spouse, child or parent. In determining who would be a good representative for you, consider the person’s ability to be available as well as their knowledge and skills.

Caution: Talk to the representative before proceeding. The representative you name is not obliged to accept the role and there may be requirements that need to be included in your RA.

Duties and responsibilities

Does the person understand and agree to take on the duties and responsibilities that will be expected of them if a time comes when they must act? These duties include:

  • acting honestly and in good faith
  • exercising the care, skill and diligence of a reasonably prudent person
  • only making decisions that the representative is authorized to make
  • consulting with you to determine your current wishes
  • keeping records of the decisions made and related information
How many representatives?

You may appoint more than one representative in an RA. Unless they have different areas of authority, your representatives must act together unless your RA says otherwise. Each situation is different. It’s your choice to decide what arrangement is practical to carry out your wishes while minimizing the risks to you.

Caution: If you appoint two or more representatives in an RA and one is no longer able to act for any reason, the remaining representative cannot continue to act unless the RA says otherwise. This may or may not be what you want. If you want one representative to be able to continue, your RA must address this.

Can I name an alternate representative?

There is always a possibility that a representative may no longer be able to act or may want to resign. If there is someone else you trust to take over, you may want to name this person as an alternate to act under your RA. Your RA must describe the circumstances when your alternate can start to act.

Representation Agreement for Routine Management of Financial Affairs (Financial RA7)


Why does an adult make a Financial RA7?
  • If you are having difficulty managing your financial affairs and are not able to make an enduring power of attorney, you may still be able to make a Financial RA7.
  • If you want your representative to make both your financial as well as your personal and health care decisions and you only want to make one document, you might want to include powers for the routine management of financial affairs with your RA for personal and health care.
Who can make a Financial RA7?

If capable, an adult (someone who is 19 or older in BC) may make an RA with standard provisions. The Representation Agreement Act says that in order to decide if someone is incapable of making an RA7, all relevant factors should be considered including whether:

  • the adult communicates a desire to have a representative make decisions
  • the adult demonstrates choices and preferences and can express feelings of approval or disapproval of others
  • the adult is aware that making the RA means that the representative may make decisions or choices that affect the adult
  • the adult has a relationship with the representative that is characterized by trusts
What does a Financial RA7 cover?

Some examples of “routine” financial management include:

  • paying bills
  • receiving and depositing income and pensions
  • purchasing food, accommodation and other services for your personal care
  • making investments according to the Trustee Act
  • opening bank accounts
  • establishing an RRSP and making contributions
  • converting an RRSP to an RRIF or annuity
  • applying for benefits you are entitled to
  • making payments on loans that you have
  • purchasing insurance for your home or motor vehicle
  • charitable donations (subject to limits)
  • preparing and filing income tax returns
  • obtaining legal services and instructing counsel to start proceedings (except divorce) or to continue, settle or defend legal proceedings

The Representation Agreement Act regulation sets out a more detailed list.

What does a Financial RA7 not cover?

A representative under a Financial RA 7 is not permitted to:

  • use or renew credit cards or a line of credit
  • take out a mortgage on your home
  • purchase or sell real estate for you
  • guarantee a loan
  • lend your personal property or give it away
  • revoke or amend a beneficiary designation
  • act as a director of a company on your behalf
How is a Financial RA7 made?

See the general information on how to make an RA. Caution: In addition to the general requirements for making an RA, a Financial RA7 requires the representative and witnesses to sign prescribed certificates.

Is a monitor required?
You must appoint a monitor unless you appoint two representatives who must act together or your representative is your spouse, a trust company, credit union or the PGT.

Choosing a representative for a Financial RA7


Choosing an representative can be a difficult decision. You do not need to make an RA7 if it is not right for you. Here are some considerations:
Who can be a representative?
See the general information on who can be a representative. When choosing someone for a Financial RA7, it is important to select someone with the skills and abilities to handle your financial affairs. You may want to discuss what may be involved so the representative can confirm he or she is comfortable with the responsibilities.
Duties and responsibilities:
In addition to the duties described in the general information, your representative must consult with you to the extent reasonable to determine your wishes and comply with those wishes if reasonable to do so.
What records must be kept? The records include:
  • a current list of your assets and liabilities
  • accounts and other records
  • invoices, bank statements and tax returns required to create a full accounting of the receipts and disbursements
Things to discuss with your representative or monitor

If you are naming a representative and a monitor, it is important that they understand and are willing to undertake their roles and responsibilities. If you are naming two representatives who must act together, it is also important that they understand that they must act together and that they agree to do so. In either case, you may want to discuss your wishes with your representative and monitor so that if they cannot consult with you, they know what you would want.

Can the representative or monitor be paid?

Representatives and monitors cannot be paid for acting unless:

  • the Financial RA7 expressly provides that they can be paid; and
  • the Court authorizes the payment. However, a representative and a monitor in a Financial RA7 are entitled to be reimbursed for reasonable expenses.
Can the representative make gifts, loans or donations?

A representative under a Financial RA7 cannot make gifts with your personal property.
Donations are permitted to registered charities in the following circumstances:

  • The donation is consistent with your past practices and your financial means; and
  • the total donated in a year does not exceed 3% of your taxable income.

Representation Agreement for Personal and Health Care Decisions (Personal/Healthcare RA 9)


Who can make a Personal Health Care RA9?
An adult (age 19 or older in BC) can make an RA9 unless incapable of understanding the nature and consequences of the proposed agreement
What personal care decisions may be included under a Personal/Health Care RA9?

In a Personal/Health Care RA9, you may give your representative authority over anything the representative considers necessary for your personal care, or you can specify what decisions are covered. Some areas of decision making may include:

  • living arrangements (including admission to a care facility)
  • diet and dress
  • participation in educational or vocational activities
  • access to personal information
  • restraint issues/toggle]
What records must be kept? The records include:
  • a current list of your assets and liabilities
  • accounts and other records
  • invoices, bank statements and tax returns required to create a full accounting of the receipts and disbursements
What is not covered under personal care in a Personal/Health Care RA9?

Unless the Personal/Health Care RA9 provides for it, a representative may not:

  • make arrangements for the temporary care and education of your minor children or someone supported by you
  • interfere with your religious practices
The Health Care (Consent) and Care Facility (Admission) Act defines major and minor health care decisions. What are major and minor health care decisions?
  • A Personal Health Care RA 9 can also cover major and minor health care. Major health care is defined in the legislation to include:
  • major surgery and any treatment that involves a general anesthetic
  • major diagnostic or investigative procedures
  • radiation therapy
  • intravenous chemotherapy
  • kidney dialysis
  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • laser surgery

Minor health care includes:

  • routine medical tests
  • routine dental treatment such as cavity fillings and extractions that do not require a general anesthetic, and dental care
What other than health care can be covered under a Personal/Health Care RA9?

If you give your representative authority to refuse or consent to health care, with no further instructions, your representative can give or refuse consent to health care necessary to preserve life. You may also authorize someone to physically restrain or move you, despite your objections, if necessary to provide you with health care.

What is not covered under non standard powers for health care (RA9)?

Unless you provide for it in your RA9, your representative cannot consent to a number of invasive and controversial treatments and therapies.

Is a monitor required?
A monitor is not required for a Personal/Health Care RA9. If you do choose to name a monitor, your RA should give instructions on whether or not the monitor needs to be replaced if he or she can no longer act.
Can a representative or monitor be paid?
Representatives and monitors may not be paid in relation to making decisions regarding health care. However, representatives and monitors may be reimbursed for reasonable expenses.

Choosing a representative for a Personal / Health Care RA9


Choosing an representative can be a difficult decision. You do not need to make an RA9 if it is not right for you. Here are some considerations:
Who can be a representative under a Personal/Health Care RA 9?
You can name anyone you trust who is an adult (age 19 or older). You may choose your spouse, a family member or a close friend. It is important to know that you cannot name someone who is paid to provide personal care or health care services. This includes employees working at a facility where you live that provides these services. There is an exception if the representative you choose is your spouse, child or parent.
What are the duties and responsibilities of a representative under a Personal/Health Care RA9?
In addition to the duties described earlier, your representative must consult with you to the extent reasonable to determine your wishes. Caution: It is important that any wishes are clear or your representative may not be able to follow them. Or, it may be necessary to go to Court for direction.
What records must be kept?

Unless the RA says otherwise, the records that must be kept include:

  • copies of any record of your instructions, wishes, beliefs and values
  • records of material changes in residence or personal or health care needs and related decisions
  • descriptions of health care decisions or admission to a care facility and date
  • descriptions of nature and reasons for restricting contact with anyone
  • descriptions about any decision to physically restrain or move you, despite objections, and why
Things to discuss with your representative

If you are naming a representative and a monitor, it is important that they understand and are willing to undertake their roles and responsibilities. If you are naming two representatives who must act together, it is important that they understand that they must act together and that they agree to do so. In either case, you may want to discuss your wishes so that if they cannot consult with you, they know what you would want.

Other Considerations for a Personal / Health Care RA9

Advance directive (AD) for health care and a Personal/Health Care RA9


If you want to make an advance directive (AD) or have one already and you want your doctor to follow the instructions in the AD without getting consent from your representative, you must say this in the Personal/Health Care RA9.

Representation Agreement with Standard Provisions for Personal and Health Care (Personal/Health Care RA7)


Why does an adult make a Personal/Health Care RA7?
If you are having difficulty managing your personal and health care decisions and are not able to make a Personal/Health Care RA9, you may still be able to make a Personal/Health Care RA7. See Financial RA7 for the considerations to decide if you are incapable of making a Personal/Health Care RA7.
What do personal care decisions include under a Personal/Health Care RA7?

Personal care as defined in the Representation Agreement Act includes things like:

  • your diet and dress
  • social activities
  • visits with family and friends
  • where you live
What does health care include under a Personal/Health Care RA7?

Health care under a Personal/Health Care RA 7 includes major and minor health care. See definitions above. It cannot include the following:

  • authority to consent to facility admission
  • invasive and controversial treatment or therapies
  • refusing treatment that would preserve life

Advance Directive (AD)


Why make an advance directive?

The reasons why you might want to make an advance directive include:

  • you do not have anyone you want to name as a representative who can make health care decisions for you
  • you may have strong feelings about certain medical treatments and interventions and want your instructions regarding their use or non-use for your health care to be legally binding
  • you have a representative, but you do not want the representative to have to make certain decisions
Who can make it?

An adult (someone age 19 or older in BC) who is capable of understanding the nature and consequences of the document can make an advance directive. It can be changed or cancelled as long as you are capable of making the change./toggle]

How is an advance directive made?
In order for an advance directive to be legally binding in BC, it must be made in accordance with the legal requirements. It must be signed and witnessed. Two witnesses are required. Only one witness is required if it is a lawyer or notary in BC. Some people may not be witnesses, including anyone under 19 and people who are paid to provide you personal or health care services, or financial services. Before making an advance directive, you may wish to read more and seek legal advice. The Ministry of Health has prepared materials on Advance Care Planning and how advance directives might fit within your overall planning for future health care decisions. At the time of writing there are no standard forms for making an advance directive. Caution: If the requirements are not met, the document will not be legally binding. However, it will be respected as your wishes made while capable, and the person with legal authority to make your health care decisions will follow your instructions.
What are considerations in making an advance directive?
At the time that consent or refusal to treatment is required, if you have an advance directive and a representative with authority to make your health care decisions (Personal/Health Care RA 9), the doctor or other health care providers will seek a decision from your representative who will follow your instructions and which reflect your wishes when capable. If you do not want your representative to have to make the decisions covered in the advance directive, your representation agreement will need to say this.
Other documents with your wishes
Yes You may have written wishes in other documents such as a living will. These documents are not ADs under BC law since they do not meet the requirements for making an AD, but they will serve as a reflection of your wishes made when capable and will guide the person who has legal authority to make your health care decisions if applicable to the situation.

Nomination of a Committee


How is a committee chosen?

If there is a need for you to have a committee, someone may apply to the Court to declare that you are incapable and ask to be named as your committee.
The applicant is usually someone from the adult’s family. They need to demonstrate that they are willing and appropriate for the responsibilities involved. Sometimes a trust company or the PGT may be appointed.

What is a nomination?

A nomination is a legal document in which a capable adult nominates a person or persons to be appointed committee for the adult by the court if required in the future. A nomination is signed and witnessed in the same manner as a will.

Who can make a nomination?
Any adult who is capable may make a nomination. Just like a will or other planning tools, a nomination can be changed or revoked by you while you are capable.
Where should a nomination be stored?
A person nominated is not obliged to accept the nomination so you may wish to discuss this matter with the person you wish to nominate in advance. You may also want to discuss where you will store the nomination and where your other important papers can be found. You may also notify the PGT that you have made a committee nomination but the PGT does not store original documents.

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